A gift to PANArt of a Swiss engineer who worked for the oil industry of Trinidad and got this steelpan( Invaderorchester) as a gift from the government. Built by V. Mannette, brother of Ellie Mannette, inventor of the famous tenor pan called INVADER.
The first steelpan built in Switzerland
According to a building instruction book by Pete Seeger. Lay-out by Ellie Mannette, steelpan pioneer Trinidad. Built by M. Berg, Fribourg, Switzerland.
The first steelpan built in Switzerland
Bottom view - The grooving is clearly visible. Control of reflexion of bending waves. Natural tuning: focus on the fundamental vibration mode. Higher partials not under control. Sounds like a balafon.
Black Pan with closed resonance body and small resonance holes. The result was a damping of the natural vibrations of the skirt.
Made of steel sheet, treated with Tenifer technology (hardening with carbon and nitrogen). Presented at the Conference of Advanced Materials , Cancun, Mexico, 1995. Present E. Mannette from Trinidad. First meeting with F. Rohner, tuner from PANART.
Raw form for Steelpans (Tenor and Second)
Pang Composite, chrome steel skirt, developed by PANArt in the years 1993/94. Offered to all steelpan tuners worldwide. Tested by Waller and Phillips (Trinidadian tuners) who came for a visit to Berne and were convinced of the raw form's quality. Only two tuners outside Trinidad were interested: Ryo Sonobe (Japan) and Tommy Critchlow (Canada).
Studies of the stiffness distribution of a dent on the brass shell, 1mm thickness, 600mm diameter. Brass has a low E- Modul and is therefor not of interest for the construction of instruments with a high non-linearity like the steel pan or the Hang sculptures.
Experiment with a raw form of a Ping instrument (diameter 600mm): tone fields with an outside dome geometry. An attractive percussion instrument!
Treichel (cow bell in Switzerland) with five sound fields (minor pentatonic), with double bobbin, diameter 55cm. The tuner's dream: a cow orchestra. Project discarded: Insight that cows should be freed from bells. All day long in the sound of steel: poor cows! One can' t close the ears!
Panginstrument with polyester skirt: failed experiment: damping too high.
The skirt absorbs too much vibration energy.
Panginstrument with polyester resonance body with opening. Diameter 600mm. Study of vibration modes of the cavity.
Pung, made of Pang Composite, played by hand. This gong-like sculpture creates a low oscillation of the skirt with the playing surface, a new principle that differs from the way the gong works. A successful experiment that could be pursued further.
Pung and its suspension device. Minimization of energy loss due to rubber bands. Studies to find out how much energy is lost through the supporters.
Resonance body of the TUBAL, a marimba-like instrument with a range of three octaves (chromatic). In the years 1996-99 the PANArt tuners began to experiment with the navel in the center of the tone field. They were also interested to integrate the air resonance. Isolating a note field leads to poor sound. Recoupling is very important to get a sound effect and a radiation which touches humans deeply.
To study the resonance of the air in the cylinder the tuners used a round styropor with a hole to manipulate the air volume. That way the air sound could be integrated (an octave lower).
Consisting of two deep-drawn shells which usually served for the pang instruments Ping, Peng and Pong. The rudimentary indentations in the tone fields - called navel - are recognizable. Diameter:600 mm.
Playing side of prototype 1
Made with parts of a pong instrument (deepest voice of the pang instruments). Eight motes, pentatonic.
Backside of prototype 1 from December 1999
Opening to tune from inside.
Prototype 2 - Sound sculpture
The PANART tuners had to find the right size and they found it: the size of a hug, ca 50 cm or 20 inches. They tried to create something like a Ghatam in Pang composit with a neck shaped upwards.
Attempt by means of a resonance hole to obtain a bass pulse failed.
Looks like the actual Hang Balu 2019!
Playing side prototype 3
Hang percussion instrument
The opening weakens the structure, instable, cavity resonance too weak
Fixing a membrane inside with a stick to excite it didn' t work, experiment failed.
Detail of Prototype 3
In search of the bass: installation of a round plate in the equator of the instrument.
With elliptical dome and seven tone fields. Shaped by hand. First sound sculpture with Ding (central tone field).
Stiffening the shape to change reflexion and shifting of energy.Sound studies: The shifting of energy from lower vibration modes to higher ones is the nature of these instruments. Each tuner will choose his parameters (there are over 40!) to find his own sound or better said: to find his energy, because the sound has - through the introduction of prestress- to be compressed and this means hammer work! Long sounding instruments can' t be mastered. More than a half second will lead to a sound mash. Especially when you play in a collective.
Gu-Side - Looking for the right size of the resonance hole
Prototype 2 - Hang sound sculpture
Ding side with hand shaped central tone field (Ding)from raw form (rolling), spot welded. Spot welding is a bad fixation of the two shells. If the instrument drops on the rim, it will break.
Prototype 4 - Hang sound sculpture
Gu-side - hand shaped, diameter : the size of a tuners hand (F. Rohner, PANArt)
central tone field Ding, name given by the PANArt tuners because the Ding sounds like bling-bling, ding-ding.
Work on the boundary conditions of the Ding. Inspired by the bored steelpan from the 80ies (Trinidad)
Studies of the energy transfer to the Ding. The dome receives an elastic core. The impact by hand is under better control and more energy can be transfered. Higher partials are damped.
Studies on the dome structure of the Integral Hang Sound Sculpture 2008
Each intervention makes the dome less stiff. This has an effect on the shifting of energy.
Studies on prestress
The dome has an important function in the distribution of the prestress, which is indispensable for a strong and short impulse. A musical instrument demands mastering of the sound. If it is too long, it will belong to the family of instruments with long sustain like gongs and musical bowls. Working with hammer and sheet means managing energy. For long sounding instruments you need thicker material, more mass. Tuners integrate string, drum and bell in one instrument. PANArt tuners integrate also the air cavity. See Hang Balu, Hang Bal, Hang Gubal.
Sound sculpture 2008
Integral means: The air cavity sound is integrated when the instrument is played in the right position. If your legs have the right angle, the octave below the Ding will appear and the player gets a low sound: a grounded sound.
Gu-Side - Integral Hang
A brass ring: the symbol of integration not only of the air sound but also the integration of all sound in the tonal ring. Each has neighbours who will recouple if they are harmonically related.
A balanced instrument--beyond the conception of scales and major and minor tonalities.
Percussion instrument Hang with an additional resonance hole: Gudu. This included a magnetic disk for closing, called Undo. An idea of Omri Hason, percussionist, Bern CH. Adds udu effects to the instrument.
Study of different volumes with so called Gugels (pronounced Google). The Gugler are traveling middle age people wearing a jacket with a hood.
Experiments with different sizes of gugel to find the right size of the cavity volume and the right shape for playing on the lap.
Studies on dome size and embossing technique on Gu shell
Gu side of a Hang Gubal.
The shell frequencies can be changed by introducing stiffening rings into the shell. Tuners are experts in stiffening and its opposite. Stiffening is a very important parameter in tuning. Each tuner has to choose his parameters (there are over 40!) to create his prefered sound. One can' t copy such a sound! One can' t copy such complex instruments. What can be done: One can lead it to banality: a poor instrument without attack.
Hang Glove 2015
The Pang-Glove is held with the thumb through the opening. The other hand is playing it. Inspired by the Sahn, an instrument still played in Jemen: Tea tablets hold with the thumbs and played with fingers. In the standing sound you sing your sacred or profan song.
Hang Gubal, made of Pang composite, 2015, design protected. Helmholtz resonance 78 Hertz. 7 sound fields with central Ringding, harmoniously tuned.